Collège de l'Île has existed under that name since June 23, 2008, the date on which it received its official title of French-language community college from the government of Prince Edward Island.

Before 2008, the Collège was known as the Société éducative de l'Î.-P.-É., which was legally incorporated in 1993. The Société Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin founded the Société éducative, which only began to provide adult training services in French in 1994.

The Adult Training Centre in Wellington opened in October 1994. The first adult training services were the general adult training course, which prepared adults to obtain their high school diploma in a college setting. The GED preparation program has also been given since the Société éducative was founded.

In 1994, the Société éducative established a partnership with Nova Scotia's Collège de l'Acadie and the province of Prince Edward Island to offer Collège de l'Acadie's college programs at the Adult Training Centre in Wellington.

This was the start of a fruitful partnership with Collège de l'Acadie, producing over a hundred graduates over the years from programs like: bilingual administrative assistant, early childhood education, child services, child services counsellor, computer technology and business techniques. However, the partnership ended in 2006.

The Société éducative took the lead and offered most of the college programs previously offered by Collège de l'Acadie through partnerships with the New Brunswick Community College and Cégep St-Félicien, but in another form. The Société éducative hired its own instructors for the college programs.

In 2006, the Société éducative opened a second Adult Training Centre at the Carrefour de l'Île-Saint-Jean in Charlottetown, making college education available to Acadian and Francophone adults outside the Évangéline Region. Since 2012, the Charlottetown campus has been at 111 Grafton Street.

In 2007, the Société éducative continued its progress by establishing a third centre, this one at the Centre acadien de Prince-Ouest in Deblois. This made training accessible in the western part of the province.

In 2008, Collège de l'Île signed a collaboration agreement with the Prince Edward Island Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning, confirming its official status as a publicly funded French-language community college. The agreement was renewed in 2013.

The Société éducative still exists because it is the legal entity behind Collège de l'Île The Board of Directors, responsible for overall management of the Collège, consists of a representative from the Acadian and Francophone community (represented by the Société Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin), the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, the Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning and Holland College, two representatives from the economic sector and one representative each of the Collège's students and its teaching staff.